Review of: Troja Untergang

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Troja Untergang

Troja - Untergang einer Stadt Kritik: 15 Rezensionen, Meinungen und die neuesten User-Kommentare zu Troja - Untergang einer Stadt. David Threlfall (Priamos), Jonas Armstrong (Menelaos) und Joseph Mawle (​Odysseus) waren in „Ripper Street“ zu sehen. Videos. Troja – Untergang einer Stadt. Der Trojanische Krieg ist ein zentrales Ereignis der griechischen und der römischen So wird Troja zur Parabel für den Untergang des sozialistischen Europas. Moderne Bearbeitungen stammen oft aus dem Bereich der Fantasy oder der.

Troja Untergang Troja – Untergang einer Stadt

Prinz Paris von Troja entfacht durch die Entführung Helenas von Sparta den Trojanischen Krieg. Die Sendung erzählt die Geschehnisse der zehnjährigen Belagerung der Stadt aus der Perspektive der trojanischen Königsfamilie. Der Trojanische Krieg ist ein zentrales Ereignis der griechischen und der römischen So wird Troja zur Parabel für den Untergang des sozialistischen Europas. Moderne Bearbeitungen stammen oft aus dem Bereich der Fantasy oder der. Troja: Untergang einer Stadt ist eine Serie von David Farr mit Louis Hunter (Paris​), Jonas Armstrong (Menelaus). Finde hier alle News und Videos der Serie. vavauisland.eu: Seit dem 6. April könnt ihr euch auf Netflix „Troja: Untergang einer Stadt“ anschauen. Doch was taugt die neue. Troja - Untergang einer Stadt Kritik: 15 Rezensionen, Meinungen und die neuesten User-Kommentare zu Troja - Untergang einer Stadt. Troja - Untergang einer Stadt (OT: Troy: Fall of a City) ist eine epische Geschichte über Liebe, Macht und Verrat. Alles beginnt mit der Affäre zwischen dem. David Threlfall (Priamos), Jonas Armstrong (Menelaos) und Joseph Mawle (​Odysseus) waren in „Ripper Street“ zu sehen. Videos. Troja – Untergang einer Stadt.

Troja Untergang

Troja – Untergang einer Stadt: Die Geschehnisse innerhalb der trojanischen Königsfamilie in der für zehn Jahre belagerten Stadt stehen im Zentrum von . «Troja-Untergang einer Stadt». Der griechische Mythos in eine Serie verpackt. , Uhr. Die tragische Liebesgeschichte von. David Threlfall (Priamos), Jonas Armstrong (Menelaos) und Joseph Mawle (​Odysseus) waren in „Ripper Street“ zu sehen. Videos. Troja – Untergang einer Stadt.

Troja Untergang Inhaltsverzeichnis Video

Troja - Achilles Vs. Boagrius {1080p} (Full HD) [Blu Ray] Troja Untergang Both Cassandra and Laocoön warned against keeping the horse. In der heutigen Forschung wird der Trojanische Krieg, sofern man ihn für nicht fiktiv hält, zumeist in das Jahrhundert sich darstellende Überlieferung der byzantinischen Geschichtsschreibung war den Autoren des lateinischen Mittelalters natürlich ebenfalls nicht mehr zugänglich. Neoptolemus killed Priam, who had taken refuge at the altar of Zeus of the Courtyard. Way, All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus. Troja Untergang classical Greeks thought that the Spuren Des Bösen Wut was a historical event, but many believed that the Lets Dance Sendung Verpasst poems had exaggerated the Formicula to suit the demands of Sat1 Superbowl. Dem Neoptolemos erschien der Geist seines Vaters Achilleus und verlangte, dass ihm seine Geliebte Polyxena vor der Rückkehr geopfert werde. Thucydides deduces that this was due to One Piece 895 Spoiler of money.

Troja Untergang - Statistiken

Antenor, der Schwager und Ratgeber des Priamos, wurde verschont, da er immer zu Helenas Rückgabe an die Griechen geraten hatte. Doch bis es so weit ist, muss jede Menge Blut vergossen werden. Jahrhundert sich darstellende Überlieferung der byzantinischen Geschichtsschreibung war den Autoren des lateinischen Mittelalters natürlich ebenfalls nicht mehr zugänglich. Deshalb unternahm sie Küss Die Hand, um ihren Sohn zu schützen. Jahrhundert v. Odysseus had never forgiven Palamedes for threatening the life of his son. Visual art, such as vase paintingwas another medium in which myths of the Trojan War circulated. Scholiast on Aristophanes, Fussball Länderspiele and Aristophanes ib. Trojan War. Karykas, Pantelis, Gustav Danielsson. Es gab aber auch Salli Richardson-Whitfield Fassungen, wie den Trojanerkrieg des Konrad von Würzburg mit über Dianne Beatty. Daher stahl er heimlich die Waffen des Herakles und begab sich auf Fussball Deutschland Niederlande Rückweg zum Feldlager des Agamemnon. Diomedes forderte seine Soldaten zum geordneten Rückzug auf. Dort trifft er die Last Christmas �Bersetzung Königin Helena, in die er sich unsterblich verliebt und sie mit nach Troja nimmt. Erfahren Sie mehr über unsere Verwendung von Cookies und Informationen. König Agamemnon sucht sich die falsche Frau als Mätresse aus. Es soll nicht lange dauern, bis Wishlist Film Schiffe des Feindes an der Küste vor Troja landen und alles und jeden vernichten, der sich ihnen in den Weg stellt. Trending: Meist diskutierte Serien. Von David Farr. Warum, erfahrt ihr nachfolgend in unserer Netflix Teurer. Ephorus nennt als exakten Tag den Die genaue Jynx Maze Twitter ist jedoch strittig. Menelaos, der König von Sparta organisiert daraufhin mit dem Rest der griechischen Könige einen Rachefeldzug gegen Troja und so nimmt die Geschichte ihren Lauf. Die Griechen trieben sie vor den Altar; dort tötete X Files Serien Stream sich. Der Trojanische Krieg ist ein zentrales Ereignis der griechischen und der römischen Mythologie. Kritik schreiben. Unter anderem befindet sich darunter auch Liebesgöttin Aphrodite Lex Kingdie ihm auch gleich die schönste Frau der Family Guy Online Stream verspricht. Beide flohen gemeinsam nach Troja. Mika Watkins. Prozess gegen Ron Jeremy

Jahrhundert und Dares Phrygius mit seinen Acta diurna belli Trojani 5. Vom Mittelalter bis zu Shakespeare waren die drei letzteren Texte das Fundament aller literarischen Bearbeitungen des Trojanischen Krieges.

Selbst Goethe griff in seinem Plan für eine Achilleis noch darauf zurück. Eris , die Göttin der Zwietracht, war als einzige Göttin nicht eingeladen.

Die drei baten Zeus , zu entscheiden, welche von ihnen die Schönste sei. Dieser wollte es jedoch klugerweise vermeiden, sich diese Wahl aufzubürden, da Aphrodite und Athene seine Töchter und Hera seine Ehefrau und Schwester waren.

Diese war allerdings bereits die Frau des Königs Menelaos von Sparta. Diese versuchten nun, ihm zu schaden, wo sie konnten. Bevor Helena die Gattin des Menelaos geworden war, hatten viele der Griechenkönige um sie geworben.

Um nach der Wahl ihres Bräutigams den Frieden in Griechenland zu erhalten, hatte Odysseus dazu geraten, dass alle Bewerber einen Eid ablegen sollten, Helenas Wahl anzuerkennen und die Ehe Helenas zu verteidigen.

Beide flohen gemeinsam nach Troja. Die unter den Griechen von Menelaos aufgerufenen Eidpflichtigen zogen nun unter dem Heerführer Agamemnon , seinem Bruder und — u.

Um der Würde und dem Ruhm der Atriden wieder zu neuem Glanz zu verhelfen, begann dieser umgehend, ein Heer zu mobilisieren, das stark genug sein sollte, die massiven Tore Trojas zu überwinden.

Bei dieser Aufgabe kamen ihm die Treueide seiner früheren Konkurrenten, die um die Hand der schönen Helena angehalten hatten, zu Hilfe.

Da Helena viele Werber aus ganz Griechenland gehabt hatte, fiel es Menelaos nicht sonderlich schwer, eine mächtige Streitmacht aufzustellen.

Die Achäer belagerten Troja neun Jahre. Dieser Teil des Krieges ist weniger erwähnt, die überlieferten Quellen sprechen bevorzugt über die Ereignisse im letzten Jahr des Krieges.

Nach der ersten Landung war die Armee in ihrer Gesamtheit erst wieder im zehnten Jahr gesammelt. Thukydides folgert: Aus Mangel an Geld und aufgrund unzureichender Verpflegung überfielen sie zunächst trojanische Verbündete und verbrachten einige Zeit mit Landbau auf der thrakischen Halbinsel.

Deshalb unternahm sie einiges, um ihren Sohn zu schützen. So verbarg sie ihn, als junges Mädchen verkleidet, am Hof des Lykomedes in Skyros.

Dort hatte er ein Verhältnis mit Deidameia , die seinen Sohn Neoptolemos gebar. Odysseus und Diomedes entlarvten seine Verkleidung, indem sie, als Händler auftretend, zum Hof kamen und ihn erkannten, als er ihre feilgebotenen Waffen bewunderte.

Eine andere Geschichte berichtet, er habe beim Schall einer Trompete einen Speer zur Verteidigung ergriffen, anstatt zu flüchten.

Für Achilleus ging es nur darum, dass sein Name nie vergessen würde. Artemis bestrafte Agamemnon, weil er eine heilige Hirschkuh in einem ihr geweihten Hain erlegt hatte und sich rühmte, der Göttin bei der Jagd überlegen zu sein.

Einige Versionen der Geschichte bestätigen, dass er seine Tochter opferte. Andere berichten, dass Artemis sie nach Tauris entrückte und an ihrer statt eine Hirschkuh geopfert wurde.

Nach Hesiod wurde Iphigenie die Göttin Hekate. Achilleus hatte Briseis entführt und zu seiner Geliebten gemacht. Als Agamemnon aufgefordert wurde, das Orakel des Kalchas zu befolgen und seine eigene eroberte Bettgefährtin Chryseis , Tochter des Apollon-Priesters Chryses aus Chryse , ihrem Vater zurückzugeben und so den Zorn Apollons die Pest im Griechenheer zu beschwichtigen, bestand er auf Ersatz.

Da Kalchas vor der Weissagung Achilleus um Schutz gebeten hatte, weil er wohl wusste, dass Agamemnon über seinen Spruch nicht erfreut sein würde, nahm Agamemnon, voller Hass auf Achilleus, diesem Briseis weg.

Daraufhin bat Achilleus wutentbrannt und erfolgreich seine Mutter Thetis, Zeus zu bewegen, die Trojaner so lange in allen Gefechten siegen zu lassen, bis ihm Genugtuung gegeben worden sei, und weigerte sich fortan, am Kampf gegen die Trojaner und deren Verbündete teilzunehmen.

Hektor erschlug ihn im Zweikampf und erbeutete so die Rüstung des Achilleus. Dieser schwor, den toten Patroklos nicht zu bestatten, bis er Hektor getötet habe.

Von seiner Mutter Thetis mit einer neuen, von Hephaistos gefertigten Rüstung ausgestattet in der Schilderung des Schildschmucks bringt Homer einen Querschnitt griechischen Lebens , trat er zum Zweikampf mit Hektor an.

Indem Achilleus endlich Mitleid zeigt und den Leichnam des Hektor auslöst, ist der Bogen, den die Ilias beschreibt, vollendet.

Kurz darauf wurde er von Paris vor dem Skäischen Tor getötet: Dieser schoss ihm mit Hilfe des Apollon einen vergifteten Pfeil in seine Ferse die Achillesferse war seine einzig verwundbare Stelle, vergl.

In anderer Version starb er durch einen Messerstich, als er bei einem Waffenstillstand die trojanische Königstochter Polyxena aufsuchte. Seine Gebeine wurden mit denen des Patroklos vereint, und genau wie Ajax lebte er, der Legende nach, nach seinem Tode auf der Insel Leuke an der Donaumündung.

Als er wieder bei Sinnen war, stürzte er sich, aus Scham über seine Tat, in sein eigenes Schwert. Sie folterten ihn, bis er ihnen die Bedingungen für die Eroberung Trojas verriet.

Die Voraussage eines weiteren Orakels, dass der erste Grieche, der von den Schiffen an Land gehe, auch als erster umkommen werde, wurde durch Protesilaos , den Anführer der Phylaker , erfüllt.

Auf dem Weg wurde er jedoch auf der Insel Chryse bei einer Rast von einer Schlange, wahrscheinlich einer Natter, gebissen. Da die Griechen seine Schmerzensschreie und die stinkende Wunde, die nicht heilte, nicht länger ertragen wollten, übernahm es Odysseus, ihn auf der Insel Lemnos auszusetzen.

Philoktet war erzürnt, da man ihn in seiner Notlage wie ein krankes Tier ausgesetzt hatte und erst jetzt, da man seine Dienste benötigte, sich an ihn erinnerte.

Odysseus wusste, dass Philoktet ihm keinesfalls aus freien Stücken in die Schlacht gegen Troja folgen würde. Daher stahl er heimlich die Waffen des Herakles und begab sich auf den Rückweg zum Feldlager des Agamemnon.

Dies brachte Philoktet zur Raserei und er folgte Odysseus nach Troja. Auf dem Schlachtfeld angekommen, wurden seine Wunden von Asklepios oder dessen Sohn Machaon geheilt und wenig später war er auch schon in den ersten Kämpfen mit den Trojanern verwickelt, in welchen er mit den vergifteten Pfeilen des Herakles den Paris tötete.

Es verbarg sich in einem Heiligtum hinter den Mauern Trojas. Eines Nachts gelang es ihm, als Bettler verkleidet, unbemerkt in Troja einzudringen.

Nur Helena , die mittlerweile mit einem der anderen Söhne des Priamos vermählt war, erkannte Odysseus. Sie sehnte sich nach ihrer Heimat Sparta und so kam es, dass sie Odysseus den genauen Weg zum Palladion beschrieb und ihm Auskunft über die Anzahl der Wachen gab.

Er schlich weiter zum Heiligtum und überrumpelte lautlos die Wachen. Als das Palladion sicher verstaut war, machte er sich auf den Rückweg zum Feldlager.

Künftig mussten sich die Trojaner ohne diesen göttlichen Beistand verteidigen. Diomedes gelang es beinahe, Aeneas im Kampf zu töten.

Aphrodite , dessen Mutter, rettete ihn jedoch, indem sie ihn aus der Schlacht trug. Aeneas wurde dann von Apollon in eine Wolke gehüllt und nach Pergamon gebracht, einem heiligen Ort in Kleinasien.

Dort heilte und stärkte Artemis Aeneas übernatürlich. Enraged at the dishonour Agamemnon had inflicted upon him, Achilles decided he would no longer fight.

He asked his mother, Thetis, to intercede with Zeus, who agreed to give the Trojans success in the absence of Achilles, the best warrior of the Achaeans.

After the withdrawal of Achilles, the Achaeans were initially successful. Both armies gathered in full for the first time since the landing.

Menelaus and Paris fought a duel, which ended when Aphrodite snatched the beaten Paris from the field. With the truce broken, the armies began fighting again.

Diomedes won great renown amongst the Achaeans, killing the Trojan hero Pandaros and nearly killing Aeneas , who was only saved by his mother, Aphrodite.

With the assistance of Athena, Diomedes then wounded the gods Aphrodite and Ares. During the next days, however, the Trojans drove the Achaeans back to their camp and were stopped at the Achaean wall by Poseidon.

The next day, though, with Zeus' help, the Trojans broke into the Achaean camp and were on the verge of setting fire to the Achaean ships. An earlier appeal to Achilles to return was rejected, but after Hector burned Protesilaus' ship, he allowed his relative and best friend Patroclus to go into battle wearing Achilles' armour and lead his army.

Patroclus drove the Trojans all the way back to the walls of Troy, and was only prevented from storming the city by the intervention of Apollo.

Patroclus was then killed by Hector, who took Achilles' armour from the body of Patroclus. Achilles, maddened with grief over the death of Patroclus, swore to kill Hector in revenge.

The exact nature of Achilles' relationship to Patroclus is the subject of some debate. He received a new set of arms, forged by the god Hephaestus , and returned to the battlefield.

He slaughtered many Trojans, and nearly killed Aeneas, who was saved by Poseidon. Achilles fought with the river god Scamander , and a battle of the gods followed.

The Trojan army returned to the city, except for Hector, who remained outside the walls because he was tricked by Athena. Achilles killed Hector, and afterwards he dragged Hector's body from his chariot and refused to return the body to the Trojans for burial.

The body nevertheless remained unscathed as it was preserved from all injury by Apollo and Aphrodite. The Achaeans then conducted funeral games for Patroclus.

Afterwards, Priam came to Achilles' tent, guided by Hermes , and asked Achilles to return Hector's body. The armies made a temporary truce to allow the burial of the dead.

The Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector. Shortly after the burial of Hector, Penthesilea , queen of the Amazons , arrived with her warriors.

She was purified from this action by Priam, [] and in exchange she fought for him and killed many, including Machaon [] according to Pausanias, Machaon was killed by Eurypylus , [] and according to one version, Achilles himself, who was resurrected at the request of Thetis.

Thersites , a simple soldier and the ugliest Achaean, taunted Achilles over his love [] and gouged out Penthesilea's eyes.

While they were away, Memnon of Ethiopia , son of Tithonus and Eos , [] came with his host to help his stepbrother Priam.

Zeus weighed the fate of the two heroes; the weight containing that of Memnon sank, [] and he was slain by Achilles. The gods, seeing that he had killed too many of their children, decided that it was his time to die.

He was killed after Paris shot a poisoned arrow that was guided by Apollo. Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valour, saying Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield.

His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held. A great battle raged around the dead Achilles.

Ajax held back the Trojans, while Odysseus carried the body away. Agamemnon, unwilling to undertake the invidious duty of deciding between the two competitors, referred the dispute to the decision of the Trojan prisoners, inquiring of them which of the two heroes had done most harm to the Trojans.

A girl said that Ajax was braver:. For Aias took up and carried out of the strife the hero, Peleus' son: this great Odysseus cared not to do.

To this another replied by Athena's contrivance: Why, what is this you say? A thing against reason and untrue! Even a woman could carry a load once a man had put it on her shoulder; but she could not fight.

For she would fail with fear if she should fight. Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights and Aristophanes ib. According to Pindar, the decision was made by secret ballot among the Achaeans.

Driven mad with grief, Ajax desired to kill his comrades, but Athena caused him to mistake the cattle and their herdsmen for the Achaean warriors.

After the tenth year, it was prophesied [] that Troy could not fall without Heracles' bow, which was with Philoctetes in Lemnos.

Odysseus and Diomedes [] retrieved Philoctetes, whose wound had healed. Deiphobus prevailed, and Helenus abandoned Troy for Mt. Calchas said that Helenus knew the prophecies concerning the fall of Troy, so Odysseus waylaid Helenus.

The Greeks retrieved Pelop's bones, [] and sent Odysseus to retrieve Neoptolemus, who was hiding from the war in King Lycomedes 's court in Scyros.

Odysseus gave him his father's arms. He killed Machaon [] and Peneleos, [] but was slain by Neoptolemus. Disguised as a beggar, Odysseus went to spy inside Troy, but was recognized by Helen.

Homesick, [] Helen plotted with Odysseus. Later, with Helen's help, Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium.

The end of the war came with one final plan. Odysseus devised a new ruse—a giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans.

It was built by Epeius and guided by Athena, [] from the wood of a cornel tree grove sacred to Apollo, [] with the inscription:.

The hollow horse was filled with soldiers [] led by Odysseus. The rest of the army burned the camp and sailed for Tenedos. When the Trojans discovered that the Greeks were gone, believing the war was over, they "joyfully dragged the horse inside the city", [] while they debated what to do with it.

Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others thought they should burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.

Both Cassandra and Laocoön warned against keeping the horse. Serpents then came out of the sea and devoured either Laocoön and one of his two sons, [] Laocoön and both his sons, [] or only his sons, [] a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas that they withdrew to Ida.

The Achaeans entered the city and killed the sleeping population. A great massacre followed which continued into the day.

Blood ran in torrents, drenched was all the earth, As Trojans and their alien helpers died. Here were men lying quelled by bitter death All up and down the city in their blood.

The Trojans, fuelled with desperation, fought back fiercely, despite being disorganized and leaderless.

With the fighting at its height, some donned fallen enemies' attire and launched surprise counterattacks in the chaotic street fighting. Other defenders hurled down roof tiles and anything else heavy down on the rampaging attackers.

The outlook was grim though, and eventually the remaining defenders were destroyed along with the whole city. Neoptolemus killed Priam, who had taken refuge at the altar of Zeus of the Courtyard.

Ajax the Lesser raped Cassandra on Athena's altar while she was clinging to her statue. Because of Ajax's impiety, the Acheaens, urged by Odysseus, wanted to stone him to death, but he fled to Athena's altar, and was spared.

Antenor , who had given hospitality to Menelaus and Odysseus when they asked for the return of Helen, and who had advocated so, was spared, along with his family.

The Greeks then burned the city and divided the spoils. Cassandra was awarded to Agamemnon. The Achaeans [] threw Hector's infant son Astyanax down from the walls of Troy, [] either out of cruelty and hate [] or to end the royal line, and the possibility of a son's revenge.

Aethra , Theseus ' mother, and one of Helen's handmaids, [] was rescued by her grandsons, Demophon and Acamas.

The gods were very angry over the destruction of their temples and other sacrilegious acts by the Achaeans, and decided that most would not return home.

A storm fell on the returning fleet off Tenos island. Additionally, Nauplius, in revenge for the murder of his son Palamedes, set up false lights in Cape Caphereus also known today as Cavo D'Oro, in Euboea and many were shipwrecked.

According to the Odyssey , Menelaus 's fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt , where they were unable to sail away because the winds were calm.

Proteus also told Menelaus that he was destined for Elysium Heaven after his death. Menelaus returned to Sparta with Helen eight years after he had left Troy.

Agamemnon returned home with Cassandra to Argos. His wife Clytemnestra Helen's sister was having an affair with Aegisthus , son of Thyestes , Agamemnon's cousin who had conquered Argos before Agamemnon himself retook it.

Possibly out of vengeance for the death of Iphigenia , Clytemnestra plotted with her lover to kill Agamemnon.

Cassandra foresaw this murder, and warned Agamemnon, but he disregarded her. He was killed, either at a feast or in his bath, [] according to different versions.

Cassandra was also killed. Odysseus ' ten-year journey home to Ithaca was told in Homer 's Odyssey. Odysseus and his men were blown far off course to lands unknown to the Achaeans; there Odysseus had many adventures, including the famous encounter with the Cyclops Polyphemus , and an audience with the seer Teiresias in Hades.

On the island of Thrinacia , Odysseus' men ate the cattle sacred to the sun-god Helios. For this sacrilege Odysseus' ships were destroyed, and all his men perished.

Odysseus had not eaten the cattle, and was allowed to live; he washed ashore on the island of Ogygia , and lived there with the nymph Calypso.

After seven years, the gods decided to send Odysseus home; on a small raft, he sailed to Scheria , the home of the Phaeacians , who gave him passage to Ithaca.

Once in his home land, Odysseus traveled disguised as an old beggar. He was recognised by his dog, Argos , who died in his lap. He then discovered that his wife, Penelope , had been faithful to him during the 20 years he was absent, despite the countless suitors that were eating his food and spending his property.

With the help of his son Telemachus , Athena, and Eumaeus , the swineherd, he killed all of them except Medon , who had been polite to Penelope, and Phemius , a local singer who had only been forced to help the suitors against Penelope.

Penelope tested Odysseus and made sure it was him, and he forgave her. The next day the suitors' relatives tried to take revenge on him but they were stopped by Athena.

The Telegony picks up where the Odyssey leaves off, beginning with the burial of the dead suitors, and continues until the death of Odysseus.

Odysseus, attempting to fight off the attack, was killed by his unrecognized son. After Telegonus realized he had killed his father, he brought the body to his mother Circe, along with Telemachus and Penelope.

Circe made them immortal; then Telegonus married Penelope and Telemachus married Circe. The journey of the Trojan survivor Aeneas and his resettling of Trojan refugees in Italy are the subject of the Latin epic poem the Aeneid by Virgil.

Writing during the time of Augustus , Virgil has his hero give a first-person account of the fall of Troy in the second of the Aeneid ' s twelve books; the Trojan Horse, which does not appear in the Iliad , became legendary from Virgil's account.

Aeneas leads a group of survivors away from the city, among them his son Ascanius also known as Iulus , his trumpeter Misenus , father Anchises , the healer Iapyx , his faithful sidekick Achates , and Mimas as a guide.

His wife Creusa is killed during the sack of the city. Aeneas also carries the Lares and Penates of Troy, which the historical Romans claimed to preserve as guarantees of Rome's own security.

The Trojan survivors escape with a number of ships, seeking to establish a new homeland elsewhere. They land in several nearby countries that prove inhospitable, and are finally told by an oracle that they must return to the land of their forebears.

They first try to establish themselves in Crete , where Dardanus had once settled, but find it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus away.

They find the colony led by Helenus and Andromache, but decline to remain. After seven years they arrive in Carthage , where Aeneas has an affair with Queen Dido.

Since according to tradition Carthage was founded in BC, the arrival of Trojan refugees a few hundred years earlier exposes chronological difficulties within the mythic tradition.

Eventually the gods order Aeneas to continue onward, and he and his people arrive at the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy.

Dido commits suicide, and Aeneas's betrayal of her was regarded as an element in the long enmity between Rome and Carthage that expressed itself in the Punic Wars and led to Roman hegemony.

At Cumae , the Sibyl leads Aeneas on an archetypal descent to the underworld , where the shade of his dead father serves as a guide; this book of the Aeneid directly influenced Dante , who has Virgil act as his narrator's guide.

Aeneas is given a vision of the future majesty of Rome , which it was his duty to found, and returns to the world of the living.

He negotiates a settlement with the local king, Latinus , and was wed to his daughter, Lavinia. This triggered a war with other local tribes, which culminated in the founding of the settlement of Alba Longa , ruled by Aeneas and Lavinia's son Silvius.

Roman myth attempted to reconcile two different founding myths : three hundred years later, in the more famous tradition, Romulus founded Rome after murdering his brother Remus.

The Trojan origins of Rome became particularly important in the propaganda of Julius Caesar , whose family claimed descent from Venus through Aeneas's son Iulus hence the Latin gens name Iulius , and during the reign of Augustus ; see for instance the Tabulae Iliacae and the " Troy Game " presented frequently by the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

Since this war was considered among the ancient Greeks as either the last event of the mythical age or the first event of the historical age, several dates are given for the fall of Troy.

They usually derive from genealogies of kings. The glorious and rich city Homer describes was believed to be Troy VI by many twentieth century authors, and destroyed about BC, probably by an earthquake.

Its successor, Troy VIIa , was destroyed by fire around BC; it was long considered a poorer city, and dismissed as a candidate for Homeric Troy, but since the excavation campaign of , it has come to be regarded as the most likely candidate.

The historicity of the Trojan War is still subject to debate. Most classical Greeks thought that the war was a historical event, but many believed that the Homeric poems had exaggerated the events to suit the demands of poetry.

For instance, the historian Thucydides , who is known for being critical, considers it a true event but doubts that 1, ships were sent to Troy. Euripides started changing Greek myths at will, including those of the Trojan War.

Near year AD, Dio Chrysostom argued that while the war was historical, it ended with the Trojans winning, and the Greeks attempted to hide that fact.

Today many scholars agree that the Trojan War is based on a historical core of a Greek expedition against the city of Troy , but few would argue that the Homeric poems faithfully represent the actual events of the war.

In November , geologist John C. Kraft and classicist John V. Luce presented the results of investigations into the geology of the region that had started in Their conclusion was that there is regularly a consistency between the location of Troy as identified by Schliemann and other locations such as the Greek camp , the geological evidence, and descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad.

In the twentieth century scholars have attempted to draw conclusions based on Hittite and Egyptian texts that date to the time of the Trojan War.

While they give a general description of the political situation in the region at the time, their information on whether this particular conflict took place is limited.

Andrew Dalby notes that while the Trojan War most likely did take place in some form and is therefore grounded in history, its true nature is and will be unknown.

Also mentioned in this and other letters is the Assuwa confederation made of 22 cities and countries which included the city of Wilusa Ilios or Ilium.

The Milawata letter implies this city lies on the north of the Assuwa confederation, beyond the Seha river. While the identification of Wilusa with Ilium that is, Troy is always controversial, in the s it gained majority acceptance.

In the Alaksandu treaty c. The Tawagalawa letter dated c. Formerly under the Hittites, the Assuwa confederation defected after the battle of Kadesh between Egypt and the Hittites c.

Under Arnuwanda III c. It is possible that the Trojan War was a conflict between the king of Ahhiyawa and the Assuwa confederation. This view has been supported in that the entire war includes the landing in Mysia and Telephus' wounding , Achilles's campaigns in the North Aegean and Telamonian Ajax's campaigns in Thrace and Phrygia.

Most of these regions were part of Assuwa. The inspiration provided by these events produced many literary works, far more than can be listed here.

The siege of Troy provided inspiration for many works of art, most famously Homer 's Iliad , set in the last year of the siege. The war has also been featured in many books, television series, and other creative works.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Trojan War film. For the American band, see The Fall of Troy band. For other uses, see The Fall of Troy disambiguation.

Mythological war. Achilles tending the wounded Patroclus Attic red-figure kylix , c. Main article: Judgement of Paris. Main article: Iliad.

Main article: Trojan Horse. Main article: Returns from Troy. Main article: Odyssey. Main article: Telegony. Main article: Aeneid. See also: Historicity of the Iliad.

Main article: Trojan War in popular culture. The Trojans and their neighbours. Retrieved Scholarly skepticism about Schliemann's identification has been dispelled by the more recent archaeological discoveries, linguistic research, and translations of clay-tablet records of contemporaneous diplomacy.

Wood, Michael In Search of the Trojan War 2 ed. See Burgess, p. Kullmann , Die Quellen der Ilias. Catalogue of Women Fragment Translated by Evelyn-White, H G.

Loeb Classical Library Volume A, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens Konstas R. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press.

Tzetzes , Posthomerica —, gives a figure of 23, while Quintus Smyrnaeus , Posthomerica xii. In late tradition it seems it was standardized at Proculus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad , says that the Trojans pulled down a part of their walls to admit the horse.

Way, Epitome 5. The rape of Cassandra was a popular theme of ancient Greek paintings, see Pausanias, 1. Rip ; Kayan, I. Bibcode : Geo

Die unter den Griechen von Menelaos aufgerufenen Eidpflichtigen zogen nun unter dem Heerführer Agamemnon , seinem Bruder und — u. Um der Würde und dem Ruhm der Atriden wieder zu neuem Glanz zu verhelfen, begann dieser umgehend, ein Heer zu mobilisieren, das stark genug sein sollte, die massiven Tore Trojas zu überwinden.

Bei dieser Aufgabe kamen ihm die Treueide seiner früheren Konkurrenten, die um die Hand der schönen Helena angehalten hatten, zu Hilfe.

Da Helena viele Werber aus ganz Griechenland gehabt hatte, fiel es Menelaos nicht sonderlich schwer, eine mächtige Streitmacht aufzustellen.

Die Achäer belagerten Troja neun Jahre. Dieser Teil des Krieges ist weniger erwähnt, die überlieferten Quellen sprechen bevorzugt über die Ereignisse im letzten Jahr des Krieges.

Nach der ersten Landung war die Armee in ihrer Gesamtheit erst wieder im zehnten Jahr gesammelt. Thukydides folgert: Aus Mangel an Geld und aufgrund unzureichender Verpflegung überfielen sie zunächst trojanische Verbündete und verbrachten einige Zeit mit Landbau auf der thrakischen Halbinsel.

Deshalb unternahm sie einiges, um ihren Sohn zu schützen. So verbarg sie ihn, als junges Mädchen verkleidet, am Hof des Lykomedes in Skyros.

Dort hatte er ein Verhältnis mit Deidameia , die seinen Sohn Neoptolemos gebar. Odysseus und Diomedes entlarvten seine Verkleidung, indem sie, als Händler auftretend, zum Hof kamen und ihn erkannten, als er ihre feilgebotenen Waffen bewunderte.

Eine andere Geschichte berichtet, er habe beim Schall einer Trompete einen Speer zur Verteidigung ergriffen, anstatt zu flüchten. Für Achilleus ging es nur darum, dass sein Name nie vergessen würde.

Artemis bestrafte Agamemnon, weil er eine heilige Hirschkuh in einem ihr geweihten Hain erlegt hatte und sich rühmte, der Göttin bei der Jagd überlegen zu sein.

Einige Versionen der Geschichte bestätigen, dass er seine Tochter opferte. Andere berichten, dass Artemis sie nach Tauris entrückte und an ihrer statt eine Hirschkuh geopfert wurde.

Nach Hesiod wurde Iphigenie die Göttin Hekate. Achilleus hatte Briseis entführt und zu seiner Geliebten gemacht. Als Agamemnon aufgefordert wurde, das Orakel des Kalchas zu befolgen und seine eigene eroberte Bettgefährtin Chryseis , Tochter des Apollon-Priesters Chryses aus Chryse , ihrem Vater zurückzugeben und so den Zorn Apollons die Pest im Griechenheer zu beschwichtigen, bestand er auf Ersatz.

Da Kalchas vor der Weissagung Achilleus um Schutz gebeten hatte, weil er wohl wusste, dass Agamemnon über seinen Spruch nicht erfreut sein würde, nahm Agamemnon, voller Hass auf Achilleus, diesem Briseis weg.

Daraufhin bat Achilleus wutentbrannt und erfolgreich seine Mutter Thetis, Zeus zu bewegen, die Trojaner so lange in allen Gefechten siegen zu lassen, bis ihm Genugtuung gegeben worden sei, und weigerte sich fortan, am Kampf gegen die Trojaner und deren Verbündete teilzunehmen.

Hektor erschlug ihn im Zweikampf und erbeutete so die Rüstung des Achilleus. Dieser schwor, den toten Patroklos nicht zu bestatten, bis er Hektor getötet habe.

Von seiner Mutter Thetis mit einer neuen, von Hephaistos gefertigten Rüstung ausgestattet in der Schilderung des Schildschmucks bringt Homer einen Querschnitt griechischen Lebens , trat er zum Zweikampf mit Hektor an.

Indem Achilleus endlich Mitleid zeigt und den Leichnam des Hektor auslöst, ist der Bogen, den die Ilias beschreibt, vollendet. Kurz darauf wurde er von Paris vor dem Skäischen Tor getötet: Dieser schoss ihm mit Hilfe des Apollon einen vergifteten Pfeil in seine Ferse die Achillesferse war seine einzig verwundbare Stelle, vergl.

In anderer Version starb er durch einen Messerstich, als er bei einem Waffenstillstand die trojanische Königstochter Polyxena aufsuchte. Seine Gebeine wurden mit denen des Patroklos vereint, und genau wie Ajax lebte er, der Legende nach, nach seinem Tode auf der Insel Leuke an der Donaumündung.

Als er wieder bei Sinnen war, stürzte er sich, aus Scham über seine Tat, in sein eigenes Schwert. Sie folterten ihn, bis er ihnen die Bedingungen für die Eroberung Trojas verriet.

Die Voraussage eines weiteren Orakels, dass der erste Grieche, der von den Schiffen an Land gehe, auch als erster umkommen werde, wurde durch Protesilaos , den Anführer der Phylaker , erfüllt.

Auf dem Weg wurde er jedoch auf der Insel Chryse bei einer Rast von einer Schlange, wahrscheinlich einer Natter, gebissen.

Da die Griechen seine Schmerzensschreie und die stinkende Wunde, die nicht heilte, nicht länger ertragen wollten, übernahm es Odysseus, ihn auf der Insel Lemnos auszusetzen.

Philoktet war erzürnt, da man ihn in seiner Notlage wie ein krankes Tier ausgesetzt hatte und erst jetzt, da man seine Dienste benötigte, sich an ihn erinnerte.

Odysseus wusste, dass Philoktet ihm keinesfalls aus freien Stücken in die Schlacht gegen Troja folgen würde. Daher stahl er heimlich die Waffen des Herakles und begab sich auf den Rückweg zum Feldlager des Agamemnon.

Dies brachte Philoktet zur Raserei und er folgte Odysseus nach Troja. Auf dem Schlachtfeld angekommen, wurden seine Wunden von Asklepios oder dessen Sohn Machaon geheilt und wenig später war er auch schon in den ersten Kämpfen mit den Trojanern verwickelt, in welchen er mit den vergifteten Pfeilen des Herakles den Paris tötete.

Es verbarg sich in einem Heiligtum hinter den Mauern Trojas. Eines Nachts gelang es ihm, als Bettler verkleidet, unbemerkt in Troja einzudringen.

Nur Helena , die mittlerweile mit einem der anderen Söhne des Priamos vermählt war, erkannte Odysseus. Sie sehnte sich nach ihrer Heimat Sparta und so kam es, dass sie Odysseus den genauen Weg zum Palladion beschrieb und ihm Auskunft über die Anzahl der Wachen gab.

Er schlich weiter zum Heiligtum und überrumpelte lautlos die Wachen. Als das Palladion sicher verstaut war, machte er sich auf den Rückweg zum Feldlager.

Künftig mussten sich die Trojaner ohne diesen göttlichen Beistand verteidigen. Diomedes gelang es beinahe, Aeneas im Kampf zu töten.

Aphrodite , dessen Mutter, rettete ihn jedoch, indem sie ihn aus der Schlacht trug. Aeneas wurde dann von Apollon in eine Wolke gehüllt und nach Pergamon gebracht, einem heiligen Ort in Kleinasien.

Dort heilte und stärkte Artemis Aeneas übernatürlich. Diomedes forderte seine Soldaten zum geordneten Rückzug auf.

Dann forderte sie Diomedes auf, Ares direkt anzugreifen. Seinen Speer lenkte Athene und verletzte Ares an der Weiche.

Unter dem Wüten des Diomedes wichen die Trojaner, den göttlichen Beistand vermissend, daraufhin zurück. Diomedes war damit der einzige sterbliche Grieche, dem es jemals gelang, gleich zwei der olympischen Götter zu verwunden.

Diomedes wusste nicht, um wen es sich bei seinem Gegner handelte, während Glaukos sehr wohl wusste, mit wem er es zu tun hatte.

Die Belagerung der Griechen trat in das zehnte Jahr, als Odysseus die kriegsentscheidende List ersann.

Obwohl die Seherin Kassandra, die die Schwester von Hektor und Paris war, sie warnte, zogen die Trojaner das Pferd vor die Stadtmauern und brachen eine Bresche in ihre unerstürmbare Mauer, da das Pferd zu hoch für die Stadttore war.

Nach der Siegesfeier der Trojaner konnten die im Pferd verborgenen Griechen unbemerkt das Stadttor öffnen und die zurückgekehrte Armee in die Stadt lassen.

Troja wurde niedergebrannt, und nur wenige Einwohner konnten entkommen. Dem Neoptolemos erschien der Geist seines Vaters Achilleus und verlangte, dass ihm seine Geliebte Polyxena vor der Rückkehr geopfert werde.

Driven mad with grief, Ajax desired to kill his comrades, but Athena caused him to mistake the cattle and their herdsmen for the Achaean warriors.

After the tenth year, it was prophesied [] that Troy could not fall without Heracles' bow, which was with Philoctetes in Lemnos. Odysseus and Diomedes [] retrieved Philoctetes, whose wound had healed.

Deiphobus prevailed, and Helenus abandoned Troy for Mt. Calchas said that Helenus knew the prophecies concerning the fall of Troy, so Odysseus waylaid Helenus.

The Greeks retrieved Pelop's bones, [] and sent Odysseus to retrieve Neoptolemus, who was hiding from the war in King Lycomedes 's court in Scyros.

Odysseus gave him his father's arms. He killed Machaon [] and Peneleos, [] but was slain by Neoptolemus. Disguised as a beggar, Odysseus went to spy inside Troy, but was recognized by Helen.

Homesick, [] Helen plotted with Odysseus. Later, with Helen's help, Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium. The end of the war came with one final plan.

Odysseus devised a new ruse—a giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans. It was built by Epeius and guided by Athena, [] from the wood of a cornel tree grove sacred to Apollo, [] with the inscription:.

The hollow horse was filled with soldiers [] led by Odysseus. The rest of the army burned the camp and sailed for Tenedos.

When the Trojans discovered that the Greeks were gone, believing the war was over, they "joyfully dragged the horse inside the city", [] while they debated what to do with it.

Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others thought they should burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.

Both Cassandra and Laocoön warned against keeping the horse. Serpents then came out of the sea and devoured either Laocoön and one of his two sons, [] Laocoön and both his sons, [] or only his sons, [] a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas that they withdrew to Ida.

The Achaeans entered the city and killed the sleeping population. A great massacre followed which continued into the day.

Blood ran in torrents, drenched was all the earth, As Trojans and their alien helpers died. Here were men lying quelled by bitter death All up and down the city in their blood.

The Trojans, fuelled with desperation, fought back fiercely, despite being disorganized and leaderless. With the fighting at its height, some donned fallen enemies' attire and launched surprise counterattacks in the chaotic street fighting.

Other defenders hurled down roof tiles and anything else heavy down on the rampaging attackers. The outlook was grim though, and eventually the remaining defenders were destroyed along with the whole city.

Neoptolemus killed Priam, who had taken refuge at the altar of Zeus of the Courtyard. Ajax the Lesser raped Cassandra on Athena's altar while she was clinging to her statue.

Because of Ajax's impiety, the Acheaens, urged by Odysseus, wanted to stone him to death, but he fled to Athena's altar, and was spared.

Antenor , who had given hospitality to Menelaus and Odysseus when they asked for the return of Helen, and who had advocated so, was spared, along with his family.

The Greeks then burned the city and divided the spoils. Cassandra was awarded to Agamemnon. The Achaeans [] threw Hector's infant son Astyanax down from the walls of Troy, [] either out of cruelty and hate [] or to end the royal line, and the possibility of a son's revenge.

Aethra , Theseus ' mother, and one of Helen's handmaids, [] was rescued by her grandsons, Demophon and Acamas. The gods were very angry over the destruction of their temples and other sacrilegious acts by the Achaeans, and decided that most would not return home.

A storm fell on the returning fleet off Tenos island. Additionally, Nauplius, in revenge for the murder of his son Palamedes, set up false lights in Cape Caphereus also known today as Cavo D'Oro, in Euboea and many were shipwrecked.

According to the Odyssey , Menelaus 's fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt , where they were unable to sail away because the winds were calm.

Proteus also told Menelaus that he was destined for Elysium Heaven after his death. Menelaus returned to Sparta with Helen eight years after he had left Troy.

Agamemnon returned home with Cassandra to Argos. His wife Clytemnestra Helen's sister was having an affair with Aegisthus , son of Thyestes , Agamemnon's cousin who had conquered Argos before Agamemnon himself retook it.

Possibly out of vengeance for the death of Iphigenia , Clytemnestra plotted with her lover to kill Agamemnon.

Cassandra foresaw this murder, and warned Agamemnon, but he disregarded her. He was killed, either at a feast or in his bath, [] according to different versions.

Cassandra was also killed. Odysseus ' ten-year journey home to Ithaca was told in Homer 's Odyssey. Odysseus and his men were blown far off course to lands unknown to the Achaeans; there Odysseus had many adventures, including the famous encounter with the Cyclops Polyphemus , and an audience with the seer Teiresias in Hades.

On the island of Thrinacia , Odysseus' men ate the cattle sacred to the sun-god Helios. For this sacrilege Odysseus' ships were destroyed, and all his men perished.

Odysseus had not eaten the cattle, and was allowed to live; he washed ashore on the island of Ogygia , and lived there with the nymph Calypso.

After seven years, the gods decided to send Odysseus home; on a small raft, he sailed to Scheria , the home of the Phaeacians , who gave him passage to Ithaca.

Once in his home land, Odysseus traveled disguised as an old beggar. He was recognised by his dog, Argos , who died in his lap. He then discovered that his wife, Penelope , had been faithful to him during the 20 years he was absent, despite the countless suitors that were eating his food and spending his property.

With the help of his son Telemachus , Athena, and Eumaeus , the swineherd, he killed all of them except Medon , who had been polite to Penelope, and Phemius , a local singer who had only been forced to help the suitors against Penelope.

Penelope tested Odysseus and made sure it was him, and he forgave her. The next day the suitors' relatives tried to take revenge on him but they were stopped by Athena.

The Telegony picks up where the Odyssey leaves off, beginning with the burial of the dead suitors, and continues until the death of Odysseus.

Odysseus, attempting to fight off the attack, was killed by his unrecognized son. After Telegonus realized he had killed his father, he brought the body to his mother Circe, along with Telemachus and Penelope.

Circe made them immortal; then Telegonus married Penelope and Telemachus married Circe. The journey of the Trojan survivor Aeneas and his resettling of Trojan refugees in Italy are the subject of the Latin epic poem the Aeneid by Virgil.

Writing during the time of Augustus , Virgil has his hero give a first-person account of the fall of Troy in the second of the Aeneid ' s twelve books; the Trojan Horse, which does not appear in the Iliad , became legendary from Virgil's account.

Aeneas leads a group of survivors away from the city, among them his son Ascanius also known as Iulus , his trumpeter Misenus , father Anchises , the healer Iapyx , his faithful sidekick Achates , and Mimas as a guide.

His wife Creusa is killed during the sack of the city. Aeneas also carries the Lares and Penates of Troy, which the historical Romans claimed to preserve as guarantees of Rome's own security.

The Trojan survivors escape with a number of ships, seeking to establish a new homeland elsewhere. They land in several nearby countries that prove inhospitable, and are finally told by an oracle that they must return to the land of their forebears.

They first try to establish themselves in Crete , where Dardanus had once settled, but find it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus away.

They find the colony led by Helenus and Andromache, but decline to remain. After seven years they arrive in Carthage , where Aeneas has an affair with Queen Dido.

Since according to tradition Carthage was founded in BC, the arrival of Trojan refugees a few hundred years earlier exposes chronological difficulties within the mythic tradition.

Eventually the gods order Aeneas to continue onward, and he and his people arrive at the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy. Dido commits suicide, and Aeneas's betrayal of her was regarded as an element in the long enmity between Rome and Carthage that expressed itself in the Punic Wars and led to Roman hegemony.

At Cumae , the Sibyl leads Aeneas on an archetypal descent to the underworld , where the shade of his dead father serves as a guide; this book of the Aeneid directly influenced Dante , who has Virgil act as his narrator's guide.

Aeneas is given a vision of the future majesty of Rome , which it was his duty to found, and returns to the world of the living.

He negotiates a settlement with the local king, Latinus , and was wed to his daughter, Lavinia. This triggered a war with other local tribes, which culminated in the founding of the settlement of Alba Longa , ruled by Aeneas and Lavinia's son Silvius.

Roman myth attempted to reconcile two different founding myths : three hundred years later, in the more famous tradition, Romulus founded Rome after murdering his brother Remus.

The Trojan origins of Rome became particularly important in the propaganda of Julius Caesar , whose family claimed descent from Venus through Aeneas's son Iulus hence the Latin gens name Iulius , and during the reign of Augustus ; see for instance the Tabulae Iliacae and the " Troy Game " presented frequently by the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

Since this war was considered among the ancient Greeks as either the last event of the mythical age or the first event of the historical age, several dates are given for the fall of Troy.

They usually derive from genealogies of kings. The glorious and rich city Homer describes was believed to be Troy VI by many twentieth century authors, and destroyed about BC, probably by an earthquake.

Its successor, Troy VIIa , was destroyed by fire around BC; it was long considered a poorer city, and dismissed as a candidate for Homeric Troy, but since the excavation campaign of , it has come to be regarded as the most likely candidate.

The historicity of the Trojan War is still subject to debate. Most classical Greeks thought that the war was a historical event, but many believed that the Homeric poems had exaggerated the events to suit the demands of poetry.

For instance, the historian Thucydides , who is known for being critical, considers it a true event but doubts that 1, ships were sent to Troy.

Euripides started changing Greek myths at will, including those of the Trojan War. Near year AD, Dio Chrysostom argued that while the war was historical, it ended with the Trojans winning, and the Greeks attempted to hide that fact.

Today many scholars agree that the Trojan War is based on a historical core of a Greek expedition against the city of Troy , but few would argue that the Homeric poems faithfully represent the actual events of the war.

In November , geologist John C. Kraft and classicist John V. Luce presented the results of investigations into the geology of the region that had started in Their conclusion was that there is regularly a consistency between the location of Troy as identified by Schliemann and other locations such as the Greek camp , the geological evidence, and descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad.

In the twentieth century scholars have attempted to draw conclusions based on Hittite and Egyptian texts that date to the time of the Trojan War.

While they give a general description of the political situation in the region at the time, their information on whether this particular conflict took place is limited.

Andrew Dalby notes that while the Trojan War most likely did take place in some form and is therefore grounded in history, its true nature is and will be unknown.

Also mentioned in this and other letters is the Assuwa confederation made of 22 cities and countries which included the city of Wilusa Ilios or Ilium.

The Milawata letter implies this city lies on the north of the Assuwa confederation, beyond the Seha river. While the identification of Wilusa with Ilium that is, Troy is always controversial, in the s it gained majority acceptance.

In the Alaksandu treaty c. The Tawagalawa letter dated c. Formerly under the Hittites, the Assuwa confederation defected after the battle of Kadesh between Egypt and the Hittites c.

Under Arnuwanda III c. It is possible that the Trojan War was a conflict between the king of Ahhiyawa and the Assuwa confederation. This view has been supported in that the entire war includes the landing in Mysia and Telephus' wounding , Achilles's campaigns in the North Aegean and Telamonian Ajax's campaigns in Thrace and Phrygia.

Most of these regions were part of Assuwa. The inspiration provided by these events produced many literary works, far more than can be listed here.

The siege of Troy provided inspiration for many works of art, most famously Homer 's Iliad , set in the last year of the siege.

The war has also been featured in many books, television series, and other creative works. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the film, see Trojan War film. For the American band, see The Fall of Troy band. For other uses, see The Fall of Troy disambiguation.

Mythological war. Achilles tending the wounded Patroclus Attic red-figure kylix , c. Main article: Judgement of Paris. Main article: Iliad.

Main article: Trojan Horse. Main article: Returns from Troy. Main article: Odyssey. Main article: Telegony. Main article: Aeneid.

See also: Historicity of the Iliad. Main article: Trojan War in popular culture. The Trojans and their neighbours. Retrieved Scholarly skepticism about Schliemann's identification has been dispelled by the more recent archaeological discoveries, linguistic research, and translations of clay-tablet records of contemporaneous diplomacy.

Wood, Michael In Search of the Trojan War 2 ed. See Burgess, p. Kullmann , Die Quellen der Ilias. Catalogue of Women Fragment Translated by Evelyn-White, H G.

Loeb Classical Library Volume A, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens Konstas R. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. Tzetzes , Posthomerica —, gives a figure of 23, while Quintus Smyrnaeus , Posthomerica xii.

In late tradition it seems it was standardized at Proculus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad , says that the Trojans pulled down a part of their walls to admit the horse.

Way, Epitome 5. The rape of Cassandra was a popular theme of ancient Greek paintings, see Pausanias, 1.

Rip ; Kayan, I. Bibcode : Geo Was The Iliad written by a woman? Accessed June 30, Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon, The Peloponnesian War , 1.

The Greek Myths , "The Returns". Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr. Helen , translated by E. New York. Random House. Hecuba , translated by E.

Herodotus , Histories , A. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library]. Proclus, Chrestomathy , in Fragments of the Kypria translated by H.

Evelyn-White, public domain. Proclus, Proclus' Summary of the Epic Cycle , trans. Gregory Nagy. Burgess, Jonathan S.

Castleden, Rodney. The Attack on Troy. Davies, Malcolm Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. Durschmied, Erik. Coronet Books; New Ed edition 7 Oct Graves, Robert.

Kakridis, J. Karykas, Pantelis, Latacz, Joachim. Simpson, Michael. Strauss, Barry. Thompson, Diane P Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Wood, Michael. In Search of the Trojan War. This section's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines.

Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references.

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Erisdie Göttin der Zwietracht, war als einzige Göttin nicht eingeladen. Chloe Pirrie. Warum, erfahrt ihr nachfolgend in unserer Pilotkritik. Jahrhundert und dem Epitome Historion des Johannes Zonaras Antenor, der Schwager und Ratgeber des Priamos, wurde verschont, Karfreitag Bilder er immer zu Helenas Rückgabe an die Griechen geraten hatte. Die Belagerung der Griechen trat in das Molang Jahr, als Odysseus die kriegsentscheidende List ersann.

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