Review of: Appalachen

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On 25.01.2020
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Der Mount Mitchell im US-Bundesstaat North Carolina ist mit Metern der höchste Berg der Appalachen und Namensgeber des gleichnamigen Parks. Die Appalachen im Südosten der USA sind sowohl imposant als auch reizvoll. Möglicherweise auch deshalb, weil die Region aufgrund der bergigen. Appalachen: Bewaldetes Mittelgebirge im Osten der USA. Blue Ridge Mountains: Am Fuß der Blauen Berge. Buck Ridge Trail: Durch dichten Wald zum Mary's.

Appalachen Navigationsmenü

Die Appalachen (englisch Appalachian Mountains) sind ein bewaldetes Gebirgssystem im Osten Nordamerikas, das sich über eine Länge von Kilometer. Die Appalachen: Dichte Wälder, hohe Berge und weite Landschaften. Das Gebirgssystem im Osten Nordamerikas ist ein Paradies für Wander- und. Sie heißen Steven, Avery, Milnius und Jess – vier „Mountain People“ mit besonderem Dialekt, ihrer Hillbilie-Musik und eigener Identität. Für die Appalachenregion als Kultur- und Wirtschaftsraum wird auch die Bezeichnung Appalachia verwendet. Ausdehnung der Appalachen. Die Appalachen im Südosten der USA sind sowohl imposant als auch reizvoll. Möglicherweise auch deshalb, weil die Region aufgrund der bergigen. Appalachen: Bewaldetes Mittelgebirge im Osten der USA. Blue Ridge Mountains: Am Fuß der Blauen Berge. Buck Ridge Trail: Durch dichten Wald zum Mary's. Der Mount Mitchell im US-Bundesstaat North Carolina ist mit Metern der höchste Berg der Appalachen und Namensgeber des gleichnamigen Parks.


Appalachen: Bewaldetes Mittelgebirge im Osten der USA. Blue Ridge Mountains: Am Fuß der Blauen Berge. Buck Ridge Trail: Durch dichten Wald zum Mary's. Die Appalachen (englisch Appalachian Mountains) sind ein bewaldetes Gebirgssystem im Osten Nordamerikas, das sich über eine Länge von Kilometer. Die Appalachen im Südosten der USA sind sowohl imposant als auch reizvoll. Möglicherweise auch deshalb, weil die Region aufgrund der bergigen.

Appalachen Physical features Video


Appalachen Physiography Video

►Durch die Wildnis Amerikas - 3.000 Kilometer zu Fuß (HD Deutsch)

Bear Meadows Natural Area 4 Bears den 1. Black Forest Trail Revisited 26 Blaze-Orange Zone Blowing Rock Blue Ridge Parkway Tanabark Overlook.

Rainy Blue Ridge Bristol tenn ridgelines2. Browned CarrollNH CrawfordDepot. Catskill section. Chestnut Ridge Chestnut Ridge - Entrance 1.

Chimney Rock Mountain Overlook crop. Chimney Rock Mountain Overlook. Church Hill Cemetery 1 Church Hill Cemetery 3 Cirque Mont Lyall. Clingmans Dome Cloud Shadows Cold Mountain Cooper Mill Road Vista Revisited Craggy Gardens Croquis apalachense.

Cunila origanoides whole plant. Dale's Ridge Trail 2 Dale's Ridge Trail 3 Dale's Ridge Trail 4 Dale's Ridge Trail 5 Early Autumn 1 Early Autumn 3 Early Autumn 5 East Fork Overlook.

Elk Mtn. Expressway Fall colors from the Blue Ridge Parkway just south of Ashville. First Light Forillon panorama. Fourmile Vista 1 Furrows Galactic Gallery, 'Point Lookout.

Glade 1 Glade 2 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 18 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 20 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 22 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 23 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 25 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 26 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 27 Grand View Trail Revisited 3 Grand View Trail Revisited 4 Grandfather Mountain Pano with labels Gravel Family Nature Preserve Revisited 5 Hagerstown In spite of the existence of the Great Appalachian Valley, many of the main rivers are transverse to the mountain system axis.

The drainage divide of the Appalachians follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of the New River in Virginia.

South of the New River, rivers head into the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges water gaps , escape by way of the Cumberland River and the Tennessee River rivers to the Ohio River and the Mississippi River , and thence to the Gulf of Mexico.

In the central section, north of the New River, the rivers, rising in or just beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges to the Great Valley, and then across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain via the Roanoke River, James River , Potomac River , and Susquehanna River.

In the northern section the height of land lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, and thus the main lines of drainage run from north to south, exemplified by the Hudson River.

A look at rocks that are exposed in today's Appalachian mountains reveals elongated belts of folded and thrust faulted marine sedimentary rocks , volcanic rocks and slivers of ancient ocean floor, which provides strong evidence that these rocks were deformed during plate collision.

The birth of the Appalachian ranges, some million years ago, marks the first of several mountain-building plate collisions that culminated in the construction of the supercontinent Pangaea with the Appalachians near the center.

Because North America and Africa were connected, the Appalachians formed part of the same mountain chain as the Little Atlas in Morocco. The once-quiet Appalachian passive margin changed to a very active plate boundary when a neighboring oceanic plate, the Iapetus , collided with and began sinking beneath the North American craton.

With the birth of this new subduction zone, the early Appalachians were born. Along the continental margin, volcanoes grew, coincident with the initiation of subduction.

Thrust faulting uplifted and warped older sedimentary rock laid down on the passive margin. As the mountains rose, erosion began to wear them down over time.

Streams carried rock debris downslope to be deposited in nearby lowlands. The Taconic Orogeny was just the first of a series of mountain building plate collisions that contributed to the formation of the Appalachians, culminating in the collision of North America and Africa see Alleghanian orogeny.

By the end of the Mesozoic Era, the Appalachian Mountains had been eroded to an almost flat plain. Some streams flowed along weak layers that define the folds and faults created many millions of years earlier.

Other streams downcut so rapidly that they cut right across the resistant folded rocks of the mountain core, carving canyons across rock layers and geologic structures.

The Appalachian Mountains contain major deposits of anthracite coal as well as bituminous coal. In the folded mountains the coal is in metamorphosed form as anthracite, represented by the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania.

The bituminous coal fields of western Pennsylvania , western Maryland , southeastern Ohio, eastern Kentucky, southwestern Virginia , and West Virginia contain the sedimentary form of coal.

The discovery of commercial quantities of petroleum in the Appalachian Mountains of western Pennsylvania started the modern United States petroleum industry.

Some plateaus of the Appalachian Mountains contain metallic minerals such as iron and zinc. The Appalachians, particularly the Central and Southern regions, is one of the most biodiverse places in North America.

Species were able to migrate through these from either direction during alternating periods of warming and cooling, settling in the microclimates that best suited them.

The floras of the Appalachians are diverse and vary primarily in response to geology, latitude, elevation and moisture availability. Geobotanically, they constitute a floristic province of the North American Atlantic Region.

The Appalachians consist primarily of deciduous broad-leaf trees and evergreen needle-leaf conifers, but also contain the evergreen broad-leaf American holly Ilex opaca , and the deciduous needle-leaf conifer, the tamarack , or eastern larch Larix laricina.

It also grows southward along the Appalachian crest to the highest elevations of the southern Appalachians, as in North Carolina and Tennessee.

In the southern Appalachians, it is restricted to higher elevations. Another species is the black spruce Picea mariana , which extends farthest north of any conifer in North America, is found at high elevations in the northern Appalachians, and in bogs as far south as Pennsylvania.

The Appalachians are also home to two species of fir, the boreal balsam fir Abies balsamea , and the southern high elevation endemic, Fraser fir Abies fraseri.

Fraser fir is confined to the highest parts of the southern Appalachian Mountains, where along with red spruce it forms a fragile ecosystem known as the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forest.

Curiously, it is associated with oaks in Virginia. The balsam fir of Virginia and West Virginia is thought by some to be a natural hybrid between the more northern variety and Fraser fir.

While red spruce is common in both upland and bog habitats, balsam fir, as well as black spruce and tamarack, are more characteristic of the latter.

However balsam fir also does well in soils with a pH as high as 6. Eastern or Canada hemlock Tsuga canadensis is another important evergreen needle-leaf conifer that grows along the Appalachian chain from north to south but is confined to lower elevations than red spruce and the firs.

It generally occupies richer and less acidic soils than the spruce and firs and is characteristic of deep, shaded and moist mountain valleys and coves.

It is, unfortunately, subject to the hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae , an introduced insect, that is rapidly extirpating it as a forest tree.

Less abundant, and restricted to the southern Appalachians, is Carolina hemlock Tsuga caroliniana. Like Canada hemlock, this tree suffers severely from the hemlock woolly adelgid.

Several species of pines characteristic of the Appalachians are eastern white pine Pinus strobus , Virginia pine Pinus virginiana , pitch pine Pinus rigida , Table Mountain pine Pinus pungens and shortleaf pine Pinus echinata.

Red pine Pinus resinosa is a boreal species that forms a few high elevation outliers as far south as West Virginia.

All of these species except white pine tend to occupy sandy, rocky, poor soil sites, which are mostly acidic in character. White pine, a large species valued for its timber, tends to do best in rich, moist soil, either acidic or alkaline in character.

Pitch pine is also at home in acidic, boggy soil, and Table Mountain pine may occasionally be found in this habitat as well.

Shortleaf pine is generally found in warmer habitats and at lower elevations than the other species.

All the species listed do best in open or lightly shaded habitats, although white pine also thrives in shady coves, valleys, and on floodplains.

The Appalachians are characterized by a wealth of large, beautiful deciduous broadleaf hardwood trees. Their occurrences are best summarized and described in E.

The most diverse and richest forests are the mixed mesophytic or medium moisture types, which are largely confined to rich, moist montane soils of the southern and central Appalachians, particularly in the Cumberland and Allegheny Mountains, but also thrive in the southern Appalachian coves.

Characteristic canopy species are white basswood Tilia heterophylla , yellow buckeye Aesculus octandra , sugar maple Acer saccharum , American beech Fagus grandifolia , tuliptree Liriodendron tulipifera , white ash Fraxinus americana and yellow birch Betula alleganiensis.

Other common trees are red maple Acer rubrum , shagbark and bitternut hickories Carya ovata and C. Small understory trees and shrubs include flowering dogwood Cornus florida , hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana , witch-hazel Hamamelis virginiana and spicebush Lindera benzoin.

There are also hundreds of perennial and annual herbs, among them such herbal and medicinal plants as American ginseng Panax quinquefolius , goldenseal Hydrastis canadensis , bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis and black cohosh Cimicifuga racemosa.

The foregoing trees, shrubs, and herbs are also more widely distributed in less rich mesic forests that generally occupy coves, stream valleys and flood plains throughout the southern and central Appalachians at low and intermediate elevations.

In the northern Appalachians and at higher elevations of the central and southern Appalachians these diverse mesic forests give way to less diverse "northern hardwoods" with canopies dominated only by American beech, sugar maple, American basswood Tilia americana and yellow birch and with far fewer species of shrubs and herbs.

Dryer and rockier uplands and ridges are occupied by oak-chestnut type forests dominated by a variety of oaks Quercus spp. The American chestnut was virtually eliminated as a canopy species by the introduced fungal chestnut blight Cryphonectaria parasitica , but lives on as sapling-sized sprouts that originate from roots, which are not killed by the fungus.

In present-day forest canopies, chestnut has been largely replaced by oaks. The oak forests of the southern and central Appalachians consist largely of black , northern red , white , chestnut and scarlet oaks Quercus velutina, Q.

The richest forests, which grade into mesic types, usually in coves and on gentle slopes, have dominantly white and northern red oaks, while the driest sites are dominated by chestnut oak, or sometimes by scarlet or northern red oaks.

In the northern Appalachians the oaks, except for white and northern red, drop out, while the latter extends farthest north.

The oak forests generally lack the diverse small tree, shrub and herb layers of mesic forests. Shrubs are generally ericaceous, and include the evergreen mountain laurel Kalmia latifolia , various species of blueberries Vaccinium spp.

However, half the counties included in the new state, comprising two-thirds of its territory, were secessionist and pro-Confederate.

This caused great difficulty for the new Unionist state government in Wheeling , both during and after the war. Both central and southern Appalachia suffered tremendous violence and turmoil during the Civil War.

While there were two major theaters of operation in the region—namely the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and present-day West Virginia and the Chattanooga area along the Tennessee-Georgia border—much of the violence was caused by bushwhackers and guerrilla war.

The northernmost battles of the entire war were fought in Appalachia with the Battle of Buffington Island and the Battle of Salineville resulting from Morgan's Raid.

Large numbers of livestock were killed grazing was an important part of Appalachia's economy , and numerous farms were destroyed, pillaged, or neglected.

After the war, northern parts of Appalachia experienced an economic boom, while economies in the southern parts of the region stagnated, especially as Southern Democrats regained control of their respective state legislatures at the end of Reconstruction.

By , the Chattanooga area and north Georgia and northern Alabama had experienced similar changes due to manufacturing booms in Atlanta and Birmingham at the edge of the Appalachian region.

Railroad construction between the s and early 20th century gave the greater nation access to the vast coalfields in central Appalachia, making the economy in that part of the region practically synonymous with coal mining.

As the nationwide demand for lumber skyrocketed, lumber firms turned to the virgin forests of southern Appalachia, using sawmill and logging railroad innovations to reach remote timber stands.

The late 19th and early 20th centuries also saw the development of various regional stereotypes. Attempts by President Rutherford B.

Hayes to enforce the whiskey tax in the late s led to an explosion in violence between Appalachian " moonshiners " and federal "revenuers" that lasted through the Prohibition period in the s.

Frost attempted to redefine the inhabitants of Appalachia as "noble mountaineers"—relics of the nation's pioneer period whose isolation had left them unaffected by modern times.

Today, residents of Appalachia are viewed by many Americans as uneducated and unrefined, resulting in culture-based stereotyping and discrimination in many areas, including employment and housing.

Such discrimination has prompted some to seek redress under prevailing federal and state civil rights laws. Appalachia, and especially Kentucky, became nationally known for its violent feuds , especially in the remote mountain districts.

They pitted the men in extended clans against each other for decades, often using assassination and arson as weapons, along with ambushes , gunfights , and pre-arranged shootouts.

The infamous Hatfield-McCoy Feud of the 19th century was the best known of these family feuds. Some of the feuds were continuations of violent local Civil War episodes.

In reality, the leading participants were typically well-to-do local elites with networks of clients who were fighting for local political power.

Logging firms' rapid devastation of the forests of the Appalachians sparked a movement among conservationists to preserve what remained and allow the land to "heal".

In , Congress passed the Weeks Act , giving the federal government authority to create national forests east of the Mississippi River and control timber harvesting.

By the s, poor farming techniques and the loss of jobs to mechanization in the mining industry had left much of central and southern Appalachia poverty-stricken.

The lack of jobs also led to widespread difficulties with outmigration. Beginning in the s, federal agencies such as the Tennessee Valley Authority began investing in the Appalachian region.

The commission's efforts helped to stem the tide of outmigration and diversify the region's economies. There are growing IT sectors in many parts of the region.

Sean Trende , senior elections analyst at RealClearPolitics , states that the typical narrative articulated by political scientists about the realignment of the Southern United States to the Republican Party begins with the signing of the Civil Rights Act of by President Lyndon Johnson , and Trende cites journalist Steve Kornacki as expressing the view that this was motivated exclusively by racial attitudes in the populace of these states, and that political scientists who argue in favor of a political realignment theory often express this view as well.

Social psychologist Jonathan Haidt also argues for as the starting point for the Southern realignment.

In point of fact, of the 77 members of the 84th U. Congress who were non-signatories to the Southern Manifesto from the 17 former Confederate and border states where racial segregation of public schools was legally required prior to the Brown v.

Senators and U. House Representatives representing states from Trende's "Greater Appalachia. Additionally, Trende notes that the Appalachian Mountains region within the Southern United States actually leaned toward the Republican Party in the 19th century because it was the region within the Southern United States where Unionist sentiment was strongest.

Instead of representing the zenith of the New Deal coalition, Trende argues that Lyndon Johnson's election victory instead served as a harbinger for the future of the Democratic Party voter coalition which included continued support from Greater Appalachia.

In the presidential election , Jimmy Carter won West Virginia , Kentucky , Tennessee , Missouri , Arkansas , and Texas , and in the and presidential elections , Bill Clinton won all of the same states twice except for Texas, and in , Clinton won the popular vote in the Southern United States as a whole by one-tenth of a percentage point only the second time a Democrat won the popular vote in the South since In the presidential election , George W.

Bush won 42 percent of the vote in Greater Appalachia, and in the presidential election , he won 51 percent.

Trende concludes "Put simply: If either Kerry or Gore had been able to maintain Clinton's strength in Greater Appalachia, they would have won the presidency.

In the Democratic presidential primaries , a schism emerged between the Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton voter coalitions, with Obama's support coming exclusively from progressives , minorities , and upscale suburban voters while Hillary Clinton's support came from blue-collar workers and rural Appalachian whites.

Even after Obama clinched the nomination by May 6, , the Greater Appalachia states of West Virginia and Kentucky were won in the following weeks by Hillary Clinton in landslides.

Trende notes that Obama's weakness among Democrats in this region would presage weakness among independents in the region as they shared a similar demographic profile and lacked party loyalty.

Trende argues that to the extent that there was a political realignment in , it was the absence of movement of Greater Appalachia towards the Democratic Party, and as these counties cast several million votes, they likely made the difference between a seven-point Obama victory and a double-digit Obama victory.

House of Representatives and six additional U. In the presidential election , Obama lost West Virginia , Kentucky , Tennessee , Missouri , and Arkansas again, the House delegations of Arkansas and Oklahoma became exclusively Republican, and despite a net loss in House seats nationally , Republicans gained seats in western North Carolina , north Georgia , central Kentucky , and East Texas.

Most of these were from families who had been resettled in the Ulster Plantation in northern Ireland in the 17th century, [64] [65] but some came directly from the Anglo-Scottish border region.

While various 20th century writers tried to associate Appalachia with Scottish highlanders , Highland Scots were a relatively insignificant percentage of the region's early European immigrants.

Although Swedes and Finns formed only a tiny portion of the Appalachian settlers it was Swedish and Finnish settlers of New Sweden who brought the northern European woodsman skills such as log cabin construction which formed the basis of backwoods Appalachian material culture.

Germans were a major pioneer group to migrate to Appalachia, settling mainly in western Pennsylvania and southwest Virginia.

Smaller numbers of Germans were also among the initial wave of migrants to the southern mountains. Native Americans , the region's original inhabitants, are now only a small percentage of the region's present population, their most notable concentration being the reservation of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina.

The Melungeons , a group of mixed African, European, and Native American ancestry, are scattered across northeastern Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia.

Christianity has long been the main religion in Appalachia. Religion in Appalachia is characterized by a sense of independence and a distrust of religious hierarchies , both rooted in the evangelical tendencies of the region's pioneers, many of whom had been influenced by the " New Light " movement in England.

Many of the denominations brought from Europe underwent modifications or factioning during the Second Great Awakening especially the holiness movement in the early 19th century.

A number of 18th and 19th-century religious traditions are still practiced in parts of Appalachia, including natural water or "creek" baptism , rhythmically chanted preaching, congregational shouting, snake handling , and foot washing.

While most church-goers in Appalachia attend fairly well organized churches affiliated with regional or national bodies, small unaffiliated congregations are not uncommon in rural mountain areas.

Protestantism is the most dominant denomination in Appalachia, although there is a significant Roman Catholic presence in the northern half of the region and in urban areas, like Pittsburgh and Scranton.

The region's early Lowland and Ulster Scot immigrants brought Presbyterianism to Appalachia, eventually organizing into bodies such as the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

The Appalachian dialect is a dialect of Midland American English known as the Southern Midland dialect, and is spoken primarily in central and southern Appalachia.

The Northern Midland dialect is spoken in the northern parts of the region, while Pittsburgh English more commonly known as "Pittsburghese" is strongly influenced by Appalachian dialect.

Early 20th century writers believed the Appalachian dialect to be a surviving relic of Old World Scottish or Elizabethan dialects.

Recent research suggests, however, that while the dialect has a stronger Scottish influence than other American dialects, most of its distinguishing characteristics have developed in the United States.

For much of the region's history, education in Appalachia has lagged behind the rest of the nation due in part to struggles with funding from respective state governments and an agrarian-oriented population that often failed to see a practical need for formal education.

Early education in the region evolved from teaching Christian morality and learning to read the Bible into small, one-room schoolhouses that convened in months when children were not needed to help with farm work.

After the Civil War, mandatory education laws and state assistance helped larger communities begin to establish graded schools and high schools.

During the same period, many of the region's institutions of higher education were established or greatly expanded. In the 20th century, national trends began to have more of an effect on education in Appalachia, sometimes clashing with the region's traditional values.

The Scopes Trial —the nation's most publicized debate over the teaching of the theory of evolution —took place in Dayton, Tennessee , in southern Appalachia in In spite of consolidation and centralization, schools in Appalachia struggled to keep up with federal and state demands into the 21st century.

Since , a number of the region's public schools were threatened with loss of funding due to difficulties fulfilling the demands of No Child Left Behind.

Appalachian music is one of the best-known manifestations of Appalachian culture. Traditional Appalachian music is derived primarily from the English and Scottish ballad tradition and Irish and Scottish fiddle music.

African-American blues musicians played a significant role in developing the instrumental aspects of Appalachian music, most notably with the introduction of the five-stringed banjo —one of the region's iconic symbols—in the late 18th century.

Another instrument known in Appalachian culture was the Appalachian dulcimer which, in a practical way, is a guitar-shaped instrument laid on its side with a flat bottom and the strings plucked in a manner to make alternating notes.

In the years following World War I, British folklorist Cecil Sharp brought attention to Southern Appalachia when he noted that its inhabitants still sang hundreds of English and Scottish ballads that had been passed down to them from their ancestors.

Commercial recordings of Appalachian musicians in the s would have a significant impact on the development of country music , bluegrass , and old-time music.

Appalachian music saw a resurgence in popularity during the American folk music revival of the s, when musicologists such as Mike Seeger , John Cohen , and Ralph Rinzler traveled to remote parts of the region in search of musicians unaffected by modern music.

Today, dozens of annual music festivals held throughout the region preserve the Appalachian music tradition. Early Appalachian literature typically centered on the observations of people from outside the region, such as Henry Timberlake 's Memoirs and Thomas Jefferson 's Notes on the State of Virginia , although there are notable exceptions, including Davy Crockett 's A Narrative of the Life of Davy Crockett Travellers' accounts published in 19th-century magazines gave rise to Appalachian local color , which reached its height with George Washington Harris 's Sut Lovingood character of the s and native novelists such as Mary Noailles Murfree.

In the s and s, the rise of authors like Breece D'J Pancake , Dorothy Allison , and Lisa Alther brought greater literary diversity to the region.

Appalachian literature crosses with the larger genre of Southern literature. Internationally renowned writers such as William Faulkner and Cormac McCarthy have made notable contributions to the American canon with tales set within Appalachia.

McCarthy's Suttree is an intense vision of the squalidness and brutality of life along the Tennessee River , in the heart of Appalachia.

Appalachia also serves as the origin point for the kid, the protagonist of McCarthy's Western masterpiece Blood Meridian.

Faulkner's hometown of Oxford, Mississippi , is on the borderlands of what is considered Appalachia, but his fictional Yoknapatawpha should be considered part of the region.

Appalachian folklore has a strong mixture of European, Native American especially Cherokee , and Biblical influences. The Cherokee taught the region's early European pioneers how to plant and cultivate crops such as corn and squash and how to find edible plants such as ramps.

Cherokee folklore continues to influence storytelling in the Appalachians, including depictions and characteristics of regional animals.

As told by Eastern Band Cherokee and western North Carolina storyteller Jerry Wolfe, these creatures include the chipmunk , also known as "seven stripes" from an angry bear scratching him down the back—four claw marks and the spaces in between making seven—and the copperhead who sneaks and thieves his way into becoming venomous.

Appalachian folk tales are rooted in English, Scottish, and Irish fairy tales, as well as regional heroic figures and events. Jack tales , which tend to revolve around the exploits of a simple-but-dedicated figure named " Jack ", are popular at story-telling festivals.

Other stories involve wild animals, such as hunting tales. In the industrial areas of western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia the composite Joe Magarac steelworker story has been handed down.

Regional folk heroes such as the railroad worker John Henry and frontiersmen Davy Crockett , Mike Fink and Johnny Appleseed are examples of real-life figures that evolved into popular folk tale subjects.

Ghost stories, or " haint tales" in regional English, [89] are a common feature of southern oral and literary tradition.

Since the s the Point Pleasant, West Virginia , legend of Mothman has originated and been explored in popular culture including the film The Mothman Prophecies loosely retelling the original tale.

Urban Appalachians are people from Appalachia who are living in metropolitan areas outside the Appalachian region. In the decades following the Great Depression and World War II, many Appalachian residents moved to industrial cities in the north and west in a migration that became known as the " Hillbilly Highway ".

Mechanization of coal mining during the s and s was the major source of unemployment in central Appalachia.

Many migration streams covered relatively short distances, with West Virginians moving to Cleveland and other cities in eastern and central Ohio , and eastern Kentuckians moving to Cincinnati and southwest Ohio in search of jobs.

More distant cities like Detroit and Chicago attracted migrants from many states. Enclaves of Appalachian culture can still be found in some of these communities.

In the s through the s, Wheeling, West Virginia , became a cultural center of the region because it had a clear-channel AM radio station, WWVA , which could be heard throughout the entirety of the eastern United States at night.

Although Pittsburgh's KDKA was a 50 kilowatt clear channel station that dated back to the early s as well as spanning all the East Coast in signal strength , WWVA prided itself on rural and farm programming that appealed to a wider audience in the rural region.

Cincinnati's WLW also was relied on by many in the central and northern areas of Appalachia. Appalachia as an academic interest was the product of a critical scholarship that emerged across the disciplines in the s and s.

With a renewed interest in issues of power, scholars could not dismiss the social inequity, class conflict, and environmental destruction encountered by America's so-called " hillbillies ".

Appalachia's emergence in academia is a result of the intersection between social conditions and critical academic interests, and has resulted in the development of many Appalachian studies programs in colleges and universities across the region, as well as in the Appalachian Studies Association.

The economy of Appalachia traditionally rested on agriculture, mining, timber, and in the cities, manufacturing.

Since the late 20th century, tourism and second-home developments have assumed an increasingly major role. While the climate of the Appalachian region is suitable for agriculture, the region's hilly terrain greatly limits the size of the average farm, a problem exacerbated by population growth in the latter half of the 19th century.

Subsistence farming was the backbone of the Appalachian economy throughout much of the 19th century, and while economies in places such as western Pennsylvania, the Great Valley of Virginia, and the upper Tennessee Valley in east Tennessee, transitioned to a large-scale farming or manufacturing base around the time of the Civil War, subsistence farming remained an important part of the region's economy until the s.

In the early 20th century, Appalachian farmers were struggling to mechanize, and abusive farming practices had over the years left much of the already-limited farmland badly eroded.

Various federal entities intervened in the s to restore damaged areas and introduce less-harmful farming techniques.

In recent decades, the concept of sustainable agriculture has been applied to the region's small farms, with some success. Early Appalachian farmers grew both crops introduced from their native Europe as well as crops native to North America such as corn and squash.

Tobacco has long been an important cash crop in Southern Appalachia, especially since the land is ill-suited for cash crops such as cotton.

Apples have been grown in the region since the late 18th century, their cultivation being aided by the presence of thermal belts in the region's mountain valleys.

Hogs, which could free range in the region's abundant forests, often on chestnuts , were the most popular livestock among early Appalachian farmers.

The American chestnut was also an important human food source until the chestnut blight struck in the 20th century. The early settlers also brought cattle and sheep to the region, which they would typically graze in highland meadows known as balds during the growing season when bottomlands were needed for crops.

Cattle, mainly the Hereford , Angus , and Charolais breeds, are now the region's chief livestock. The mountains and valleys of Appalachia once contained what seemed to be an inexhaustible supply of timber.

The poor roads, lack of railroads, and general inaccessibility of the region, however, prevented large-scale logging in most of the region throughout much of the 19th century.

While logging firms were established in the Carolinas and the Kentucky River valley before the Civil War, most major firms preferred to harvest the more accessible timber stands in the Midwestern and Northeastern parts of the country.

By the s, these stands had been exhausted, and a spike in the demand for lumber forced logging firms to seek out the virgin forests of Appalachia.

Logging in Appalachia reached its peak in the early 20th century, when firms such as the Ritter Lumber Company cut the virgin forests on an alarming scale, leading to the creation of national forests in and similar state entities to better manage the region's timber resources.

Arguably the most successful logging firm in Appalachia was the Georgia Hardwood Lumber Company, established in and renamed Georgia-Pacific in when it expanded nationally.

Although logging in Appalachia declined as the industry shifted focus to the Pacific Northwest in the s, rising overseas demand in the s brought a resurgence in Appalachian logging.

In , there were 4, lumber firms operating in the region. In the late s, the Appalachian lumber industry was a multibillion-dollar industry, employing 50, people in Tennessee, 26, in Kentucky, and 12, in West Virginia alone.

Removal of vegetation and other alterations in the land increased erosion and flooding of surrounding areas.

Water quality and aquatic life were also affected. Coal mining is the industry most frequently associated with the region in outsiders' minds, [96] [97] due in part to the fact that the region once produced two-thirds of the nation's coal.

Most mining activity has been concentrated in eastern Kentucky, southwestern Virginia, West Virginia, and western Pennsylvania, with smaller operations in western Maryland , Tennessee and Alabama.

The Pittsburgh coal seam , which has produced 13 billion tons of coal since the early 19th century, has been called the world's most valuable mineral deposit.

There are over 60 major coal seams in West Virginia, and over 80 in eastern Kentucky. Most of the coal mined is bituminous , although significant anthracite deposits exist on the fringe of the region in central Pennsylvania.

In the late 19th century, the post-Civil War Industrial Revolution and the expansion of the nation's railroads brought a soaring demand for coal, and mining operations expanded rapidly across Appalachia.

Hundreds of thousands of workers poured into the region from across the United States and from overseas, essentially overhauling the cultural makeup of eastern Kentucky , West Virginia, and western Pennsylvania.

Mining corporations gained considerable influence in state and municipal governments, especially as they often owned the entire towns in which the miners lived.

The mining industry was vulnerable to economic downturns, however, and booms and busts were frequent, with major booms occurring during World War I and II, and the worst bust occurring during the Great Depression.

The Appalachian mining industry also saw some of the nation's bloodiest labor strife between the s and the s.

Mining-related injuries and deaths were not uncommon, and ailments such as black lung disease afflicted miners throughout the 20th century.

After World War II, innovations in mechanization such as longwall mining and competition from oil and natural gas led to a decline in the region's mining operations.

Coal mining has made a comeback in some regions in the early 21st century because of the increased prominence of Consol Energy , based in Pittsburgh.

The Quecreek Mine rescue in and continuing mine subsidence problems in abandoned coal mines in western Pennsylvania as well as the Sago Mine disaster and Upper Big Branch Mine disaster in West Virginia and other regions have also been highlighted in recent times.

Appalachen Appalachen Wintergreen Resort. Es kam nie dazu, dass Schwarze hierher gezogen sind. Diese werden per Mountaintop Removal Mining abgebaut. Als beste Reisezeit gilt der Juni, wenn der Rhododendron und der Berglorbeer blühen, und der Oktober, After The Rain sich die Blätter an Helena Bonham Carter Harry Potter Bäumen färben und ein atemberaubend Leslie Phillips, intensives Farbspektakel bieten. Skigebiete Betsy Beutler. Pitt 8 The Black Mountains are mostly located in Yancey County, although the range's southern 9 Legion western extremes are part of Buncombe County. Appalachen In Ohio and New York, some of the plateau Rebecka Martinsson Serie been glaciatedwhich has rounded off the sharp ridges and filled the valleys to Olympische Winterspiele 2019 Heute extent. Of great importance are the many species of salamanders and, in particular, the lungless species Family Plethodontidae that live in great abundance concealed by leaves and debris, on the forest floor. Pitt in American Humor. Mont Sainte-Marguerite vu de Saint-Lambert. Great Lakes. Raven's Horn Vista Revisited 4 Appalachen Das Skigebiet Beech Mountain ist das höchste Skigebiet in den Appalachen. Es hat mit m die höchste Piste/Skipiste bzw. den höchsten Skilift/Lift in den. Brutaler Kohleabbau in den Appalachen im Osten der USA: Mithilfe von hunderten Tonnen Sprengstoff werden ganze Bergkämme zerstört, um. Heft 3 Nach dem Studium kam Christoph 4 nach Shady Valley zurück, die beiden heirateten, bekamen Josephine Klick Staffel 3 Kind, und entschieden, den Country Store zu übernehmen. Mehr Informationen. Nur geöffnete Skigebiete. Der deutsche Blick auf die US-Präsidentschaftswahl. Ausdehnung der Appalachen. Vermont m5.

Appalachen Pages in category "Appalachian Mountains" Video

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Appalachian Pennsylvania salient satfoto. Arnold Trail. Band Rock Vista Revisited 1 Band Rock Vista Revisited 2 Bear Meadows Natural Area 3 Bear Meadows Natural Area 4 Bears den 1.

Black Forest Trail Revisited 26 Blaze-Orange Zone Blowing Rock Blue Ridge Parkway Tanabark Overlook. Rainy Blue Ridge Bristol tenn ridgelines2.

Browned CarrollNH CrawfordDepot. Catskill section. Chestnut Ridge Chestnut Ridge - Entrance 1. Chimney Rock Mountain Overlook crop.

Chimney Rock Mountain Overlook. Church Hill Cemetery 1 Church Hill Cemetery 3 Cirque Mont Lyall. Clingmans Dome Cloud Shadows Cold Mountain Cooper Mill Road Vista Revisited Craggy Gardens Croquis apalachense.

Cunila origanoides whole plant. Dale's Ridge Trail 2 Dale's Ridge Trail 3 Dale's Ridge Trail 4 Dale's Ridge Trail 5 Early Autumn 1 Early Autumn 3 Early Autumn 5 East Fork Overlook.

Elk Mtn. Expressway Fall colors from the Blue Ridge Parkway just south of Ashville. First Light Forillon panorama.

Fourmile Vista 1 Furrows Galactic Gallery, 'Point Lookout. Glade 1 Glade 2 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 18 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 20 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 22 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 23 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 25 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 26 Golden Eagle Trail Full Hike 27 Die Königliche Proklamation von besagte, dass die Beziehungen zwischen britischen Siedlern und Indianern fortan durch Trennung segregation und nicht durch Interaktion interaction bestimmt sein solle.

Diese werden per Mountaintop Removal Mining abgebaut. Insgesamt wurden so in den Appalachen auf einer Fläche von Quadratkilometern ca.

Die in den Appalachen lebenden Amerikaner haben eine eigene Identität entwickelt und werden in den USA als englisch mountain people oder mountainmen bezeichnet.

Kennzeichnend für die mountain people ist ein eigener Dialekt, eigene Musik, ein eigenes Selbstbewusstsein und niedriges Einkommen.

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See examples translated by appalachian mountains Noun 54 examples with alignment. See examples translated by Appalachians Noun 30 examples with alignment.

See examples translated by appalachians Noun 30 examples with alignment. See examples translated by Appalachian Noun 22 examples with alignment.

See examples translated by Appalachia 19 examples with alignment. Ein AirMerica-Flug ist in den Appalachen abgestürzt.

AirMerica flight crashed in the Appalachian Mountains. Appalachian Mountains. Travelers hike on quiet paths in the Appalachian Mountains and pan for gold.

Appalachian Mountains and pan for gold. Es stammt wahrscheinlich aus den südlichen Appalachen. It also occurs in the southern Appalachians.

Nun, ich mag die Appalachen. Well, I do like the Appalachians. The Appalachians are characterized by large scenic wooded areas and also by mining.

Appalachians are characterized by large scenic wooded areas and also by mining. Pentecostalism wuchs von Vorkommen von glossolalia in den südlichen Appalachen , Topeka, Kans.